Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy
CONTRIBUTORS to Kleinian Studies
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Texts should be written in
References should be cited in
the text (Smith, 1988, pp. 1-10) and
listed alphabetically at the end of the article: Smith A (1988) 'A contribution
on style', in E. Smith, ed. Contributions
on Style. Colchester: Jay, 1989; or Smith, A. (1988) A Contribution on Style. Colchester: Jay. A style sheet is
Spellings: where both -ise and -ize
endings are possible, please use the latter, thus: realize, equalize. Certain common words must take the -s form, however, as: advertise,
analyse, comprise, enterprise, exercise, improvise, paralyse, supervise,
Use italics sparingly for emphasis; consider rewriting the sentence, since italics often read as shrill.
Do use italics for: book, film and play titles; works of art; long poems which are virtually books in themselves; names of periodicals.
Use roman in quotation marks
for: titles of chapters in books, articles in periodicals, shorter poems.
Don't use a full stop when people are referred to by a single initial only: C, C's, Mr X, Mr X's.
But: if an individual is named
in full and then referred to by his or her initials, use full stops: Leonard
Use UK or US spelling. Don't use
the ampersand (&) in the text, even for joint authors; use the ampersand
only in the case of a company name.
Try to avoid footnotes - they
are very tedious for editors and readers. Some
people do not find this easy. Here
are a few hints. Insert brief references in the text. Revise text to include 'asides'. Cut
out parenthetical allusions altogether. Resort
to endnotes (printed together at the end of the article as 'Notes') when
necessary asides would interrupt the flow of the text; in this case, number by
When footnotes are essential, but there are very few in the text, use the sequence asterisk *, dagger ┼, double asterisk **, double dagger ╪. These notes will then appear at the bottom of the page. If you need to have essential information at the start of the article - for instance, where a paper was first read - use the asterisk and type the information at the bottom of the page.
Use single quotation marks for
short quotations. Use double
quotation marks for internal quotations. In
the rare case of a quotation internal to that, revert to single quotes. For quotations longer than about 60 words (or five lines), indent without quotation marks; because you have no gout marks here, internal quotations in an
indented gout should have single gout marks. Make sure you indicate when you want a display (indent) of obviously less
than 60 words to be retained for emphasis.
Feel free to vary the
punctuation immediately before a displayed quotation: a comma, colon, or full
stop may be appropriate, depending on sense.
Ellipsis: use ... in all cases. It is simpler than variants such as ,... or .... [to show the end of one
sentence and then an omission], even though it is less faithful to the original.
Retain the capitalisation of the
original, as in:
Patterns of firing represent patterns of stimulation. Understanding this was the beginning of the powerful modern
conception of the nervous system (p.40).
Patterns of firing represent patterns of stimulation... this was the
beginning of the powerful modern conception of the nervous system (p. 40).
If your displayed quotation ends
in the middle of a sentence, use the ellipsis to show this, and then give the
page reference in the normal way:
beginning of the
powerful modern conception... (p. 40)
For material in quotation marks,
the norm is that it is exempt from alterations of wording. However, for consistency, the essay will be copy-edited to the house style -
so you may as well keep this in mind when preparing your essay. Ambiguities, such archaic or misleading punctuation, should also be
corrected by you as long as the original meaning is not distorted.
Wherever you are making an
authorial comment within a quotation, it should be in square brackets, [
Following a displayed quotation,
the next line of type should be full out.
The system we use is to enclose
references within parentheses, thus: (Jones, p. 56). If Jones has been a major source of inspiration with several
works cited, use: (Jones, 1976, p. 22). Don't use ibid. or op. cit. when the
context makes it clear that you are still quoting the same work: just use (p.
56). Although you do not have to give a page no. for every single remark, you
should always cite a page no. for displayed material - it stands out so much
more clearly and is usually there for emphasis anyway. If two authors have the same surname, give initial of first name too:
(Freud, A., p. 33).
Examples of some common
(Jones, 1927, pp. 17-8)
(Jones, 1927, 1928)
(Broom, 1982; Jones, 1927) [alphabetical not date order]
(my italics). [at end of sentence within text]
. (pp. 23-4, author’s italics)
. (pp. 23-4, my italics) [at end of display]
(Freud, A., 1927)
(letter, 27 November 1933)
( and Ponytails, p. 312)
(Collator, personal communication, 1977)
(1950, letter 69)
(quoted in Heath, p. 55)
Use the shortest intelligible
form, as in: pp. 20-1.
PREPARATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHY
The textual reference, by
author's name, leads the reader to the right place in the author-date
bibliography. When there are
several works by the same author, they appear in date order. Works by sole author precede works by the same author but
authored jointly with another or others, regardless of date order, thus:
Laplanche, J. (1971)
J. and Pontalis, J.-B. (1973)
You should always supply the
name of the publisher. Consult your
editor in cases where this rule is inappropriate or impossible to fulfill.
You should normally give the
date of first publication immediately after the name; but consult your editor if
it is important to give date of writing, oral presentation, or publication in
another language. In the case of
books with multiple editions or printings (and where a paperback version has
appeared), please give bibliographical details for both the original and the
final (paperback) versions, where possible. A Note at the head of the
bibliography can explain any special cases.
A personal communication should
not appear in a bibliography, for it cannot be traced. It should just be named as such in the text, with a date.
Inclusive pagination - again in
the shortest intelligible form - is required for all references, whether to
journal articles, chapters in books, or references to a work in a Collected
Presentation of bibliography
Remember to type this double
spaced - with an additional line space between entries. Use a long dash when there is more than one work by the same author:
Winnicott, D. W. (1948)
It is your responsibility to
establish whether you are citing an article or chapter or book, and to cite it
in the appropriate way.
Works in a foreign language
or in translation
If you wish to refer to a
foreign-language Collected Works, give full bibliographical details for the
first entry, and then a consistent abbreviation, such as: G.W. for Freud, Gesammelte
Bibliographical conventions in
other countries may vary, and place
and publisher may not always be given in your sources. Please supply any missing information, and let us know if
some can't be found.
Abbreviated journal titles
We use the following forms:
Am. Imago -- American Imago
Am. J. Psychoanal. -- American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Br. J. Med. Psychol. -- British Journal of Medical Psychology
Br. J. Psychother. -- British Journal of Psychotherapy
Free Assns -- Free Associations
Int. J. Group Psychother. -- International Journal of Croup
Int. J. Psycho-Anal. -- International Journal of Psycho-Analysis
Int. Rev. Psycho-Anal. -- International Review of Psycho-Analysis
J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn -- Journal of the American Psychoanalytic
J. Analyst. Psychol. -- Journal of Analytical Psychology
Psychoanal. Contemp. Sci. -- Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Science
Psychoanal. Psychoanal . Psychoanal Psychoanal. Rad. Sci.
Psychoanal. Q. -- Psychoanalytic Quarterly
Psychoanal. Rev. -- Psychoanalytic Review
Psychoanal. Soc. Sci. -- Psychoanalysis and the Social Sciences
Psychoanal. Studs. – Psychoanalytic Studies
Psychoanal. Study Child -- Psychoanalytic Study of the Child
Rad. Sci. J. -- Radical Science Journal
In other cases, unless the
abbreviated title is likely to be self-explanatory, it is better to give the
long form. But don't cite the same title sometimes in full, sometimes as an
Alexander, F., Einstenstein, S.
and Grotjhan, M., eds. (1966) Psychoanalytic
Pioneers. New York: Basic. [note short form of publisher’s name]
Alexander, F., ed. (1966) Psychoanalytic
Pioneers. New York: Basic.
ARTICLE IN BOOK
Balint, M. (1933) ‘On Transference of Emotions’, in Balint (1965), pp. 301-19
______ (1965) Primary Love and
Psychoanalytic Technique. Tavistock.
REPRINT OF BOOK
Anzieu, D. (1959) El
Autoanalisis de Freud y el Descubrimiento del Psicoanalisis, vol. 2. Mexico:
Siglo XXT, 1979. [original date of publication after author's name, date of
edition used at end of reference. Make
sure text reference is to original date of publication.]
BOOK IN A SERIES
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment
and Loss, vol. 1, Attachment.
Hogarth. [use date of volume in question]
ARTICLE IN MULTI-EDITED WORK
Bowlby, J. (1975) 'Attachment
Theory, Separation Anxiety and Mourning', in D. A. Hamburg and H. K. Brodie,
eds., The American Handbook of Psychiatry,
vol. 6. New York: Basic, pp. 393-456.
JOINTLY AUTHORED WORK
Laplanche, J. and Laplanche,
J.-B. (1973) The Language of
ARTICLE IN JOURNAL
Alpert, A. (1959) 'Reversibility
of Pathological Fixations Associated with Maternal Deprivation in Infancy', Psychoanal.
Study Child 14: 169-85. [note that the same convention holds for issue-based
journals as for volume-based journals, thus: Telos 5: 33-57]
Kafka, Franz (1925) The
Trial, E. and W. Muir, trans. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1953.
Calef, V. (1976) 'The
Psychoanalytic Process', Panel discussion, Association for Child Psychoanalysis,
Kansas City. [unnecessary here to
say 'Unpublished paper'.]
THESES OR DISSERTATIONS
Calef, V. (1956) 'The
Psychoanalytic Process', University of Cambridge, PhD dissertation.
COLLECTED WORKS: FREUD, JUNG,
MARX, LENIN, etc.
The first entry should give full
details: place and publisher, no. of vols., years of publication, translators
and/or editors; then a clear abbreviation (S.E. for Freud; C.W. for Marx, Jung, Lenin;
otherwise, an unambiguous, consistent form), and cite in date order of writing. It is unnecessary to give the date of publication of individual volumes
in a Collected Works.
You should indicate whether the
original publication was a book or paper in the normal way, and you should
include page numbers.
The following examples are taken
from the Freud Standard Edition:
Freud, S. (1886a) 'Report on my studies in Paris and Berlin', in James
Strachey, ed. The Standard Edition of the
Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 24 vols. Hogarth, 1953-73.
vol. 1, pp. 38-95.
______ (1886b) 'Observations on a case of hysteria'. S.E. 1, pp. 103-56.
______ (1905) Three Essays on the
Theory of Sexuality. S.E. 4, pp. 3-150.
Make sure that any a, b, etc.
references in the bibliography and text tally - feel free to ask for guidance
when compiling your bibliography.
Note: Use the ampersand for publishers: Grune & Stratton.
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